The most traditional type of batik is called batik tulis (hand-drawn batik), where patterns are drawn with pencil and redrawn with hot wax using canting (a pen-like instrument consisting of a small copper reservoir with a spout on a wooden handle). The whole process of making batik tulis is complex and time-consuming. The more intricate the pattern and the more colors desired, the longer the process takes. Batik tulis, therefore, is more expensive and highly sought after by collectors.
Due to industrialisation in the middle of the 19th century, batik cap emerged in Indonesia. The batik cap is where the wax is applied using a copper stamp or "chap" as it is pronounced, instead of being hand-drawn onto the fabric. The stamps are made in various patterns and are applied to the fabric in a repeated manner across the surface like block-printing. Although the batik cap technique is not as exhaustive and time-consuming as batik tulis, producing batik cap is a labour intensive and requiring patience and great skill. It is usually done by men, who as boys learn the skill at an early age and with experience can produce perfectly registered designs without the use of drawn guide lines.
Batik kombinasi combines both techniques of tulis and cap on one cloth. First the main design is waxed with a cap, then the batiker adds details with the canting so batik kombinasi is priced in-between tulis and cap.
Primissima is the finest cotton used for batik, very finely woven and has firm texture. The superbly smooth surface allows all fabric painting techniques. It is mostly used for batik tulis but we use this material for our batik cap also.
Paris is lightweight and soft crepe cotton often used for batik scarf. We use this cotton to make soft flowing dress or skirt.
Santung is also soft and flowing but it is slightly firmer and thicker, not as sheer as Cotton Paris.